By Aditya Mittal

May 2005


© MITS Communications – This article is republished.  It was first published in the June 01, 2005 edition of MITS Communications magazine.  For more details on MITS refer to


Theoretical Basis:


            The laws of classical dynamics begin to deteriorate at high velocities and small scales where Einstein’s relativity and quantum mechanics take over, respectively.  Accordingly, small particles traveling at high velocities are subject to the laws of relativistic-quantum mechanics.  Amazing phenomenon begin to occur in this domain, and new technology is trying to take advantage of these phenomenon to create miraculous machines.

            Nanotechnology refers to technology at the nanometer (10-9 meters) scale.  A nanometer is merely ten angstroms long where an angstrom is named after Swedish astronomer and physicist, Ångström, Anders Jonas (1814–1874), who was one of the early formulators of the science of modern spectroscopy.  Ångström wrote extensively on terrestrial magnetism, the conduction of heat, and especially spectroscopy. He published a monumental map of the normal solar spectrum that expressed the length of light waves in units of one ten-millionth of a millimeter.  This unit of length usually used to specify radiation wavelengths is now known as the angstrom (10-10 meters). He discovered that hydrogen is present in the sun's atmosphere, and he was the first to examine the spectrum of the aurora borealis.  Although, the diameter of atoms varies and the basic unit is taken to be the Bohr radius (5.2917725 x 10-11 m), the diameter of an atom depending upon the element is approximately one to five angstroms.  This puts from 2 to 10 atoms in a nanometer and 2000 to 10000 atoms in a micrometer.  For example, there are about 3 silicon atom diameters in a nanometer.

            Quantum Mechanics becomes extremely important at these atomic scales.  Quantum Mechanical uncertainty begins to play a large role in our ability to determine how a nanoscale machine such as a small robotic arm will behave in certain conditions.  Effects like electrons tunneling through potential barriers can form both hindrances and advantages in creating such machines.  Interestingly, the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) widely used in both industrial and fundamental research to obtain atomic-scale images of metal surfaces, itself uses the quantum tunneling effect to view and manipulate nanoscale particles, atoms and small molecules and to map surfaces. The STM, first used in the mid-1980s, allowed scientists not only to see details of atomic structures, but also to manipulate those structures.

            Unlike relativity, which has remained unchanged since Einstein’s formulation, quantum mechanics is still being formulated to some extent.  This theory is not a result of only one person but of many people’s calculations and ongoing experiments.  Alongside, other theories are also developing for describing small scale and high velocity behaviors such as Superstrings which has been quite popular in the recent years.  The theoretical developments are closely correlated with recent discoveries in nanotechnology that remained unexplained by older theories.  The seemingly sudden new discoveries are not a result of an impulsive idea but sequences of small experiments gradually done in labs until a refined product is seen.  When the new discovery comes into the attention of thousands of physicists all of a sudden, new ideas begin to evolve, and new theories and experiments are formed.  Take for example, quantum dots which are still undergoing this gradual development. 


Quantum dots are tiny particles of semiconductors such as cadmium selenide that behave as if they were individual atoms.  They can absorb light energy, kicking their internal electrons up to higher energy levels, and then release the energy by emitting light. A quantum dot fluoresces much more brightly than a dye molecule, making it a desirable marker especially to track the moving molecules of a living organism since an electron microscope cannot be used.  This process is known as biological tagging.  Now in 2004, The University at Buffalo research team led by professor T.J. Mountziaris invented a new way to synthesize quantum dots using luminescent nanocrystals made from semiconductor material. This technique enables precise control of particle size by using a microemulsion template formed by self-assembly.  Then, some German scientists started blasting the quantum dots with light to create the quantum mechanical state needed to run a quantum computer, a computer that would be as small as a grain. But they couldn't consistently control that state as a result of defects formed during the process of constructing a quantum dot according to the research team at Ohio University.  The team’s study is also supposed to help scientists better understand how to control the spin states of an electron and lead to the formation of a better quantum dot.  In 2005, Cornell University has created 'Cornell dots' that can replace quantum dots for biological tagging, imaging and optical computing.  CU dots are nanoparticles consisting of a core about 2.2 nanometers in diameter containing several dye molecules, surrounded by a protective silica shell, making the entire particle about 25 nm in diameter. The researchers call this "core-shell architecture."


Also, in May 2005, Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory showed that the materials used to create quantum dots can also be used to greatly improve solar cell electricity production because quantum dots can furnish as many as three electrons from one high energy photon of sunlight. When today's photovoltaic solar cells absorb a photon of sunlight, the energy gets converted to at most one electron, and the rest is lost as heat.  Today’s best cells convert only about 33 percent of the sun's energy into electricity.  However, NREL and NRL (Naval Research Lab in Washington D.C.) have been working together to describe a new theoretical foundation for the multiple exciton generation process that is based on certain unique aspects of quantum theory.  They have shown that solar cells based on quantum dots theoretically could convert more than 65 percent of the sun's energy into electricity, approximately doubling the efficiency of solar cells.  Also May 2005, Evident Technologies has begun sale of large scale commercial Indium Phosphide-based, Molecular Plated T2-MP EviTags in Deep Red Colors for Life Science Research.  That is non-heavy metal quantum dots are now commercially available for biological tagging to laboratories.


Vision of Nanotechnology:

People have wanted to be rich for centuries.  People have been trying to create gold ever since gold became the measure of wealth.  People have also been trying to make diamonds because not only are they expensive and a display of aristocracy, but also rare, and quite useful in industrial applications such as cutting.  Unlike gold, diamonds are constructed of carbon which is readily available at dirt cheap prices.  If anyone could cheaply put carbon atoms together to form diamonds, he would become rich instantly.  Dr. Ralph Merkle sees atoms as LEGO blocks.  Today’s manufacturing methods are very crude at the molecular level. Casting, grinding, milling and even lithography move atoms in great thundering statistical herds. It's like trying to make things out of LEGO blocks with boxing gloves on your hands. Yes, you can push the LEGO blocks into great heaps and pile them up, but you can't really snap them together the way you'd like.

“In the future, nanotechnology will let us take off the boxing gloves. We'll be able to snap together the fundamental building blocks of nature easily, inexpensively and in most of the ways permitted by the laws of physics. This will be essential if we are to continue the revolution in computer hardware beyond about the next decade, and will also let us fabricate an entire new generation of products that are cleaner, stronger, lighter, and more precise.”

In Aditya Mittal’s science fiction book Fierce Game of Foolish Geniuses: The Opening of Chess a futuristic robotic society is envisioned in which a printer would be able to print not only on paper by putting atoms of ink on it, but to put individual atoms together in any 3D configuration.  In other words, a printer would be able to print a diamond given carbon atoms or even a potato if someone was hungry.  In this robotic society, elements came through pipelines into a home or office just the way data comes in bits through an internet coaxial cable today.  Of course, these elements were paid for by the user to the provider.



Some time back, there was an article in Science News envisioning an elevator to space – that is from ground to a space station in space.  This elevator would be pulled up and down by carbon nanotubes which were claimed to have enough strength to hold up such a system.  A simple google search for ‘space elevator’ will result in much more information on this subject.


In Michael Crichton’s novel Prey, there was a nanotechnological black swarm of predator robots.  This was built on the swarm model developed in New Mexico.  The swarm could grow and learn just like a biological population by itself.  Soon enough people become the prey…

Ideas, Experiments and Research:


Molecular manufacturing

Molecular manufacturing is the envisioned construction of molecules one atom at a time, where any structure consistent with physical laws can be made at costs not exceeding the cost of the required raw materials and energy.  This idea was directly seen in my printer vision.  For more detailed analysis of the subject see Merkle’s articles “Molecular Manufacturing: Adding Positional Control to Chemical Synthesis” published in Chemical Design Automation News, Volume 8, Numbers 9 & 10, September/October 1993, page 1 and “Convergent Assembly” published in Nanotechnology 8, No. 1, March 1997, pages 18-22.  This material is not as recent as the topics discussed here, however, is crucial to understanding the basic details of molecular manufacturing.



            The current idea of assembling an object from nanoparticles consists of using robotic arm(s) to move particles into the right positions.  We wish to assemble in both serial and parallel as if there are many assembly lines.  Exponential assembly, convergent assembly, and self-replication are key ideas in such an assembly.  According to the people at Zyvex who are developing huge numbers of miniature robotic arms exponential assembly is “a manufacturing architecture starting with a single tiny robotic arm on a surface. This first robotic arm makes a second robotic arm on a facing surface by picking up miniature parts — carefully laid out in advance in exactly the right locations so the tiny robotic arm can find them — and assembling them.”  These robotic arms are a part of MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical System).  Convergent assembly on the other hand is the idea that small parts can be assembled into large parts, which can be assembled into still larger parts, and so forth.  Finally, self-replication is the idea that a particle can create more of itself, given the components to make it in the right positions.  The idea of self-replication is built into the idea of exponential assembly as defined by Zyvex.


Carbon Nanotubes


The above image shows examples of carbon nanotube structures, including multiwalled and metal-atom-filled nanotubes.  Image taken from on May 27, 2005.



            As mentioned earlier, the ability to make diamonds cheaply is desired; therefore, in the recent years much emphasis has been given to constructing compact stable structures out of carbon atoms.  1996 Nobel Prize laureates Robert F. Curl, Harold W. Kroto, and Richard E. Smalley discovered the carbon structure Buckminsterfullerene, more commonly known as the "buckyball" consisting of 60 carbon atoms arranged like a ball.  In the years that followed a common device for holding carbon structures became seamlessly wrapping graphitic structures around cylinders.  This technique has also been applied to other elements but carbon remains most popular.  These structures could be made anywhere from just a few nanometers in cylindrical diameter up to a millimeter in diameter.  This allows for multifarious length-to-width aspect ratios.



            The following passage from “The Space Elevator Comes Closer to Reality” by David Leonard shows us not only the strength and fast pace research of these carbon nanotubes, but also how much is expected:

The hurdle to date, Edwards said, has been the commercial fabrication of carbon nanotubes. Both U.S. and Japanese firms, among others, are ramping up production of carbon nanotubes, with tons of this now exotic matter soon to be available. "That quantity of material is going to be around well before five years time. It's not going to take long," he said.

Given the far stronger-than-steel ribbon of carbon nanotubes, a space elevator could be up within a decade. "There's no real serious stumbling block to this," Edwards explained.

"The making of carbon nanotubes is moving very quickly," said Hayam Benaroya, a professor in the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at Rutgers in Piscataway, New Jersey. "We're moving from the scientific stage of just developing them to actual commercial entities producing them in ton-like quantities," he said.

"Perhaps within our lifetimes we might actually see real designs of skyhooks and space tethers, these kinds of things. They may be feasible at reasonable cost," Benaroya said.

            If things really do move at the pace expected by this article it would not be long before we will really be creating diamonds.  Today, many firms are patenting various designs of these nanotubes such as “buckytubes” which are small diameter carbon nanotubes on which Carbon Nanotechnologies, Inc (CNI) reached 30 patents this year.  Designs not only vary the diameter of the tube but also the number of layers around the cylinder.


            Following is the quantitative measure of some carbon nanotube properties from Discover Magazine, January 1999, page 38:


Superstrong Materials:  Embedded into a composite, nanotubes have enormous resilience and tensile strength and could be used to make cars that bounce in a wreck or buildings that sway rather than cracking in an earthquake.


Tensile Strength:  45 billion Pascal vs. 2 billion Pascal for the best steel alloys before they break


Density & Lightness:  1.33 to 1.40 grams per cubic centimeter vs. 2.7 g/cm^3 for aluminum (& 8.0 g/cm^3 for steel)


Resilience/Memory:  Can be bent at large angles and re-straightened without damage. Carbon fibers and normal metals fracture at grain boundaries (causing wrinkles, creases, dents, and breakage).


Heat Transmission:  Predicted to be as high as 6000 watts per meter per Kelvin at room temperature vs. 3320 W/m/K for nearly pure diamond or 430 W/m/K for silver. (Nanotubes have highest known heat transmission)


Temperature Stability:  Stable up to 2800 deg. Celsius (5000 deg. Fahrenheit) in a vacuum; 750 deg C in air (1400 F);


Size:  0.6 to 1.8 nanometers in diameter (Threads of nanotube fibers could be woven into a cloth or fabric.)             


Electrical Properties:  Can be varied from semiconducting to highly conducting; semiconductor material could be dull in color while highly conducting material could appear shiny and metallic.


            Following is from Scientific American, January 2000:


Clearly, the numbers are different.  Searching different sources we find that carbon nanotubes are about six or more times lighter than steel and 10 to 100 times stronger than steel depending upon the type of steel and carbon nanotube and exact details of measurement.  But clearly, nanotubes win by a significant amount.


Photonics and Electronics


            Short range fiber optics has been low-profile for the past few years while electronics has been gaining because of its ability to produce results cheaply.  Fiber optics has been an expensive process of constructing tube like structures made of glass or plastic to carry photons that carry data.  Due to high costs of fiber production, it is only used for large amounts of data transmission over long distances to minimize costs.  It works well over long distances because photons are fast and the energy loss from the fiber is minimal.  Along with this, optical fiber amplifiers can be used to restore the lost energy along the way.  For imagination purposes, it is useful to realize that a single optical fiber can carry as many as 300,000 telephone calls. However, speeding techniques in electronics are moving towards exhaustion as electrons can only travel so fast through circuitry and we can only make the circuit small enough.  As things move along, we might very well be forced to supplant our electronics with photonics – that is transmitting photons through the wires instead of electrons.  It has been estimated that a photonic internet could be carrying 160 gigabits per second.


If the promise of photonic technology is realized, the high-speed processing and movement of data today will seem so sludgelike, people of the future will wonder how we ever got anything done. Photonic technology is still a long way down the road but the goal is a few steps closer now.” – A Few Steps Closer to Nanoscale Photonic Technology by U.S. Department of Energy’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab)


            Scientists working with the Berkeley Lab and University of California at Berkeley, have been able to guide pulses of laser light through a variety of nanowire structures.  Furthermore, they have also been able to use these nanowires and nanoribbons to guide laser light through water and other liquids which gives way to new research in micro fluidics and biology.  According to Peidong Yang, a leading scientist in this lab, so far nanoscale lasers, photo detectors, and ribbons that serve as flexible sub-wavelength optical waveguides have been made and much work is happening on building the blocks for photonics. Ultimately, the desire is to integrate all these individual components together into a photonic system-on-a-chip that could be used to perform instant and detailed analyses for studies in chemistry, biology and medicine.


            At Syracuse University in New York I have also been doing lab work with fabricating very thin metal film, specifically, 99.9% pure gold films about 5nm thick.  We did so by using a new fabricating process to fabricate a smooth gold film at the core-cladding boundary in fiber.  The process consists of depositing gold onto a clean glass rod which will form the core of the fiber, collapsing a glass tube or ampoule to create the preform, and then drawing the preform into gold cylindrical optical fiber with a drawing tower.  In the process of pulling the fiber we also end up pulling the gold into a thin film.  Due to quantum mechanical properties the gold changes color as it gets thinner eventually becoming gray.  Also, the indices of refraction are mapped as a function of wavelength in gold films of different thicknesses such as 2.06 or 4nm.  Such properties and fabrication methods of very thin films will also be extremely important in the future development of photonics.


Image Copyright © Cornell University


Cornell University researchers have also bridged electronics and photonics by developing a silicon device that allows an electrical signal to modulate a beam of light on a micrometer scale.  Shown above is the SEM image of the ring coupled to a waveguide.


The development of photonics will still take some time.  We still need to explore the nanotechnology door before jumping into the photonics.  The systems that build the field of photonics might very well be constructed of nanotubes and other nanoscale structures.  More theoretical advancement may also be needed before photonics is really applied.  We started with discussing relativistic quantum mechanics but up until now we have only really dealt with quantum mechanics.  That is behavior at the small scale limit, namely, the atomic scales at which we have needed to understand the behavior of electrons.  However, for photons in small structures both quantum mechanics and also relativity will be important when determining time delays for various components.  Due to more tedious timing calculations it might become more convenient to design asynchronous self-contained circuits rather than using system clocks as with present day computers.


The Labs and Companies:


Iomega – recently got U.S. Patent No. 6,879,556 titled Method and Apparatus for Optical Data Storage which is a nano-technology-based subwavelength optical data storage technology called AO-DVD (Articulated Optical - Digital Versatile Disc).  In the future this technology is expected to lead to 40-100 times better DVD’s.  This invention is a recent winner of Nanotech Briefs' Nano 50 awards which began this year.  On June 7-8, 2005 a Nano2005 conference is being held at The Westin, Santa Clara, CA which is an exhibition focused on emerging business opportunities in nanotechnology. 



Cornell University – much of the groundbreaking research in the field of nanotechnology has been coming from Cornell University.  For just a few examples, it is here that the world’s smallest guitar (a single string seen with an SEM and a pick to pluck it with) was made sometime back, where a new kind of quantum dots was made, and also where a device to modulate light with electricity for photonics was made.


Because it will be exhaustive to continue to write about the hundreds of labs and companies rapidly discovering the field following is a list of some U.S. based units that are interested:

A & E Technology, Inc.
AAI Corporation
Addx Corporation
Advanced Consulting & Distribution
Advanced Information Tech, Inc.
Advanced Products Co., Inc.
Aegis Technologies
Aerotech Inc.
Air Force Research Laboratory
Akzo Nobel
Alabama A&M University
Albany NanoTech
Allegis Capital
Ambios Technology, Inc.
American Trim
Ames Center for Nanotechnology
Analog Devices, Inc.
Apariq, Inc.
Apex Sales Group, LLC
Applied MicroStructures
Applied Technologies
Army Research Laboratory
Arrow International, Inc.
Aspen Systems, Inc.
Asylum Research
Atlas Venture
Atometric, Inc.
Automated Precision
Automated Process Technology
AVOX Systems Inc.
Azna Corp.
BAE Systems
Ballistic Composites, LLC
Bayer Polymers
Beacon Life Sciences
Beacon Technology Ventures
Benet Labs
Bio Lab, Inc.
BioPhan Technologies, Inc.
BJ Services Company
BlabberMouth PR
Blackhawk Technical College
BNP Media
Booz Allen Hamilton
Boston College
Boston Scientific Corp.
Boston University
Bourns, Inc.
Brisland Consulting
British Consulate-General
Budd, Larner
Busek Co., Inc.
Business Communications Co.
Career & Technology Ctr. At Fort Osage
Carmichael Honda
Carnegie Mellon University
Cascade Microtech
Case Western Reserve Univ.
Caterpillar Inc.
Centennial Associates, LLC
Center for Applied Radiation Research
Church & Dwight Co., Inc.
Ciba Specialty Chemicals
City of Dresden, Office of Economic Dev
Cline Innovations, LLC
Coakley & Williams Construction Inc.
College Park Industries
Computer Aided Engineering Assoc.
Computer Sciences Corp.
Conversion Technologies International
Cook Urological
Cookson Electronics
Corona Design
Coty Inc.
Coventor, Inc.
Cross Automation
Custom Manufacturing & Engineering
Cuyahoga Plastics
CVI Laser, LLC
Davidson Institute
Defense Intelligence Agency
Defense Science and Technology Agency
DEKA Research & Development
Department of Economic Development
Dept. of Business & Economic Dev.
DFJ New England Fund
Dickey-John Corporation
Disruptive Innovations & Technologies
Dolphin Venture, LLC
Draper Laboratory
DuPont Company
DuPont Corporation, R&D Planning
Eaton Coporation
Eikos Inc.
Electrical & Computer Engineering
Eneri Inc.
Engelhard Surface Technologies
Enterprise Ireland
Estee Lauder
Ethicon Endo-Surgery
Evaporated Metal Films Corp.
Falcon Systems Engineering Corp.
Federal Mogul Corporation
FEI Company
Fidelity Investments
Filtration Group
Fiore Industries, Inc.
Flo-Tork, Inc.
Ford Motor Company
Fort Osage CTC
Foster Corp.
Foster-Miller, Inc.
Fujitsu Computer Products
GE Energy
GE Global Research
Gems Sensors, Inc.
General Atomics
General Dynamics
Geo-Centers, Inc.
George Mason University
Georgia Power
Germane Tool Corp.
GMA Industries
Goodrich Corp.
GP:50 Ltd.
Greenough Communications
GT/Microelectronics Research Ctr.
Guide Line Industries, Inc.
Hardinge Inc.
Harris & Harris Group, Inc.
Harvard University
Headwall Photonics, Inc.
Health Policy & Program Consults
Highland Capital Partners
Hoeganaes Corporation
Holographix, LLC
Hope Global
Hosokawa NanoParticle Tech Ctr.
Hyperion Catalysis International
IBM Research
ILC Dover
Illume, Inc.
Information Gatekeepers, Inc.
Infotonics Technology Center
Inspired Research, LLC
Inst. For Sys Res & Dept of Materials Science
InstroTek, Inc.
Integrated Nanosystems, Inc.
Integrated Nano-Technologies, LLC
Intel Corp.
IntelliSense Software Corp.
Invensys Climate Controls
Isomet Corporation
ISR, Inc.
ITN Energy Systems, Inc.
Itochu International, Inc.
J K Lees Consulting
J.M. Coull, Inc.
Janney Montgomery Scott, LLC
Jet Propulsion Laboratory
JETRO Houston
JMI, Inc.
John Deere
John Hopkins Applied Physics Lab
John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Johns Hopkins University
Johnson & Johnson
Joslyn Designs Inc.
Kamatics Corporation
Kazak Composites, Inc.
Kemet Technologies Corp.
Key Technologies
Konarka Technologies, Inc.
Laservy Corporation
Leader Tech, Inc.
Lehigh University
LG Chem
Lockheed Martin Corporation
Logic Enterprises USA, Inc.
Lord Corporation
Los Alamos National Laboratory
Luna NanoWorks
Lux Capital
LuxDelta Products Pte Ltd
Lynntech, Inc.
M&W Zander
Madison Research Corp.
MagCap Engineering, LLC
Malden Mills Ind. Inc.
Marine Corps Logistics Base
Marketing Assessment
Marotta Controls, Inc.
Maryland Dept. of Business & Economic Development
Maryland Industrial Partnership
Maryland Technology Dev. Corp.

Massachusetts Technology Collaborative
Matheson Tri-Gas
McClellan Automation Systems
MEMS & Nanotechnology Exchange
Mercedes-Benz USA
Meyer Tool & Mfg., Inc.
Midlands Technical College
Millennium Chemicals
Mission Research Corp.
MIT Space Nanotechnology Lab
MKS Instruments, Inc.
Moog Inc.
Moxtek, Inc.
mPhase Technologies
MTS Nano Instruments
MTS Systems Corporation
Muniz Engineering, Inc.
Muons, Inc.
NANO Necessities, LLC
Nanobac Pharmaceuticals
NanoComp Technologies Inc.
NanoConductors, Inc.
Nanocor, Inc.
NanoDynamics, Inc.
NanoOpto Corporation
Nanoparticle Innovations
Nanotech Briefs
Nanotechnology Network
Nanoverse, LLC
Nantero, Inc.
NASA Ames Research Center
NASA Glenn Research Center
NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
NASA IL Commercialization Center
NASA Johnson Space Center
NASA Langley Research Center
NASA Office of Aerospace Technology
NASA Spinoff
NASA Tech Briefs
Nathaniel Electronics
National Institute of Standards & Technology
National Institutes of Health
National Science & Technology Council
National Security Agency
National Technology Transfer Center
Natl Nanotechnology Coordination Office
Naval Research Laboratory
Niagara Mohawk
Nokia Reasearch Center
NonWoven Technologies, Inc.
Nordson Corporation
Northeastern University
Northrop Grumman Corp.
Northrop Grumman Newport News
Nothern Virginia Technology Council
Office of Naval Research
Office of Tech Commercialization
Office Of Technology Partnerships
Office of Transnational Issues
OmniGuide Communications
Omnova Solutions
Optical Research Associates
Oregon Ballistic Laboratories, LLC
Osram Sylvania, a Siemens Co.
Owens Corning
Oxford Instruments
P.I. Physik Instrument LP
Parker Hannifin
Paul Brown, Inc.
Penn United Technology
Penske R&D
Performance Coating Corp.
PM-Soldier Warrior
Polaris Venture Partners
Polylnsight, LLC
Potomac Interface, Inc.
Precitech Inc.
Progression Systems
Python Injection, Inc.
Quantachrome Instruments
Quantum Logic Devices
Quantum R&D
Reckitt Benckiser
Refining Systems, Inc.
Reichert Inc.
Research Support Instruments
Right Management Consultants
Robert Bosch Tool Corp.
RockPort Capital Partners
Rockwell Automation
Rockwell Scientific Company
Rutgers University
Salvona Technologies
SAPPI Fine Paper
SAS Investors
Schick Wilkinson Sword
Seldon Laboratories, LLC
Sepracor, Inc.
Siemens Westinghouse
Signature Science
SK USA, Inc.
Smaltec Intetnational
Smith Barney
Sogang University
SolidWorks Corporation
Sonoran Scanners
Southwest Nanotechnologies, Inc.
SP & S
Spherosils LLC
SSD Labs
State Department
State of Tennessee
Stevens Institute of Technology
Strategic Informatics Corp.
Stryker Orthopaedics
SUSS MicroTec
Swales Aerospace
Synergy Innovations, Inc.
Technical Fibre Products, Inc.
Technical Manufacturing Corp.
Technology Commercialization Center
Technology Partnerships Division
TechSolve, Inc.
Teledyne Microelectronic Tech
Textron Systems Corp.
The Coca-Cola Company
The Daniels Group
The Gillette Company
The Maryland Technology Development Corp.
The Mitre Corporation
The Photonics Center
The Timken Company
ThermoGear Inc.
Theron, Inc.
Thin-Films Research, Inc.
Titan Corp.
Titan Corporation
Tofts Design Inc.
Toucan Capital Corporation
TOYOBO America, Inc.
Toyota Motor Mfg. NA
Trimtape, Inc.
Trykor, Inc.
U of Illinois
U.S. Dept. of Energy, Kansas City Plant
U.S. Air Force
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, ARS
U.S. Navy
U.S. Senate
Uniglobe Kisco, Inc.
United Defense, L.P.
United States Surgical
United Technologies Research Center
Univ. of Massachusetts Lowell
University of Dayton Research Inst.
University of Florida
University of Maryland
University of Massachusetts Lowell
University of Wisconsin-Madison
US Army Corps of Engineers
US Army Tacom-Ardec
US Department of Energy
US Environmental Protection Agency
US Surgical
USAF Human Systems Prog Office
USDA-Agricultural Research Service
USRA/Division of Space Life Sciences
Valeo Electrical Systems
Varian Biosynergy
Varian, Inc.
Veeco Instruments
Verizon Technologies
Vertex Pharmaceuticals
Vibro-Acoustic Consultants
Victoria's Secret
Virginia Tech Dept of Physics
VTI Technologies
W.L. Gore & Associates
Washington Mills Electro Minerals
Wet Labs, Inc.
Williams Advanced Materials
Workplace Systems, Inc.
WPI Bioengineering Institute
Yankeetek Partners, Inc.
Zyvex Corporation


Journals and References:


Technology Review: MIT's Magazine of Innovation – MIT Tech Review is a monthly science magazine that covers a variety of topics currently in research including nanotechnology.  Its cover price is $59.88 per year.


IEEE Transactions On Nanotechnology - The scope of the IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology will include the physical basis and engineering applications of phenomena at the nanoscale level across all areas of science and engineering.  It is a quarterly magazine and the price is $549.63 per year.


Journal Of Nanoscience And Nanotechnology – A monthly magazine that consolidates research activities in nanoscience and nanotechnology into a single, and unique reference source. Articles cover synthesis of nanostructures, atomic characterization, bioassemblies, nanoprobes, quantum factors and more.  The price for a year’s subscription is $530.82.

International Journal Of Nanotechnology - The journal includes original articles on all subjects and topics related to nanotechnology, along with review papers, conference reports, essays, notes, news, and comments.  This is a quarterly journal at $474.07 per year.

Nanotechnology Law & Business – Quarterly magazine at $256.55 per year.

Nanotechnology – Monthly magazine aimed at promoting the dissemination of research and improving understanding amongst the engineering, fabrication, optics, electronics, materials science, biological and medical communities.  Yearly price is $480.11.

Journal Of Biomedical Nanotechnology – Quarterly journal priced at $272.07 per year.

Nanomedicine : Nanotechnology Biology And Medicine – Quarterly journal priced at $84.74 per year.